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In contrast to my observations of erasing the past at the Nicaean cathedral, the sites at Gallipoli are fully remembered. If I were an Australian or New Zealand visitor, I would feel highly respected by the Turkish peoples’ commemoration of my losses in World War I. There are 35 ANZAC graveyards across the Galibolu Penninsula, and 20 Turkish ones. There is a statement by Ataturk assuring the mothers of those lost that Turkey will care for their sons as if they were her own sons. Each site is clearly marked, with signs an maps in both English and Turkish. It is not that the Turks have deemphasized their victory – there are practically cult of personality narratives about Ataturk’s heroic role. But that can exist side-by-side with the commemoration of the Anzac forces.

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Another place where historical memory is being honored is at the 19th Century synagogue in Edirne. It was a ruin for a long time after a fire, and the city has been restoring it. The synagogue is in much better shape than the last time our guide saw it.

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